In the traditional publishing workflow (see graphic below), proofreading and copyediting are two distinct steps, but in non-publishing contexts, the two are often carried out at the same time ('proofediting').
The difference between copyediting and proofreading then becomes one of level of intervention.
I use Microsoft Word's Track Changes function to show my edits.*
* While PowerPoint doesn't have a Track Changes function, you can compare the pre-edited and edited versions to see the changes.
I use Microsoft Word's Comments function for any queries I may have for the author.*
Queries are a key stage of the editing process.
I send the client the edited text with my edits visible in Track Changes and with any queries.
The author can reply to the queries using Word comments and/or make any necessary changes directly into the text.
After I've reviewed the author's answers and finalised the queries, I provide the client with a final version of the text.
* PowerPoint also has a Comments function.
For traditional publishing clients or official publications, proofreading is carried out as a separate stage on PDF.
I use PDF-XChange Editor Plus.
Usually clients prefer any changes to be indicated using the standard markup tools so the designer/typesetter can make the changes in the master document using the design program.
As a Professional Member of the Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading (CIEP), I abide by its Code of Practice.
1. These terms and conditions apply to any work done for the Client by MB Editing.
2. The Client is under no obligation to offer MB Editing work; neither is MB Editing under any obligation to accept work offered by the Client.
3. MB Editing will provide service(s) as mutually agreed, confirmed in writing by the Client.
4. The work will be carried out unsupervised at such times and places as determined by MB Editing, using her own equipment.
5. MB Editing confirms that she is self-employed, is responsible for her own income tax and National Insurance contributions (VAT is not applicable) and will not claim benefits granted to the Client's employees.
6. MB Editing agrees to attend the Client's or other premises for necessary meetings, the time spent and agreed reasonable expenses incurred to be reimbursed by the Client.
7. The Client will reimburse MB Editing for agreed reasonable expenses over and above usual expenses incurred in the process of editorial work.
8. The Client will pay MB Editing a fee per hour, per printed page, per word or per character, or an agreed flat fee for the job.
9. The completed work will be delivered on or before the date agreed, for the agreed fee, which will be based on the description of the work required and the brief, both supplied by the Client.
10. If, however, on receipt of the item to be worked on or at an early stage, it becomes apparent that significantly more work is required than had been anticipated in the preliminary discussion/brief, MB Editing may renegotiate the fee and/or the deadline.
11. Similarly, if, during the term of MB Editing's work, additional tasks are requested by the Client, MB Editing may renegotiate the fee and/or the deadline.
12. If the project is lengthy, MB Editing may invoice periodically for completed stages.
13. Any content created by MB Editing as part of the copyediting/proofreading/copywriting process will become the copyright of the Client, unless otherwise agreed.
14. The nature and content of the work will be kept confidential and not made known to anyone other than the Client and its contractors without prior written permission.
15. MB Editing guarantees that any work that she subcontracts on behalf of the Client will be completed to the same standard, schedule and budget and with the same conditions of confidentiality.
16. If MB Editing's work is unsatisfactory, MB Editing will rectify it in her own time and at her own expense.
17. For private individuals, payment is required upfront for projects below 10,000 words, and half upfront for larger projects. For companies, unless agreed otherwise at the outset, payment will be made within 30 days of receipt of MB Editing's invoice, according to the Late Payment of Commercial Debts (Interest) Act 1998 (amended 2002 and 2013). MB Editing reserves the right to charge interest on overdue amounts at the rate of 3% per month on the outstanding balance from the date of the invoice until the date of payment.
19. Either the Client or MB Editing has the right to terminate a contract for services if there is a serious breach of terms.
20. If MB Editing has made a substantial contribution to the copyediting/proofreading/copywriting of the work, she will be entitled to receive one free copy of the work.
21. MB Editing may use the Client's name in her promotional material.
22. Any errors will be rectified free of charge by MB Editing if notified by the Client within 48 hours of receipt of completed work or within 14 days for work of more than 3,000 words.
23. Final responsibility for any errors in completed work rests solely with the Client.
24. MB Editing is not responsible for the end use of any document produced or edited through her services. The Client is solely responsible for its appropriate use, including abiding by any copyright laws, plagiarism laws and publishing requirements.
25. MB Editing is not responsible for the content of any document supplied to her.
26. The Client should not pass off plagiarised material as its own original work. MB Editing will assume no responsibility for any plagiarised material supplied by the Client and reserves the right to return the work should she become aware of such inappropriate use.
27. This agreement is subject to the laws of England and Wales [or Scots or Northern Ireland law, as appropriate], and both MB Editing and the Client agree to submit to the jurisdiction of the English and Welsh [or Scots or Northern Ireland] courts.